For Germany, regional variation of procedure rates of carotid endarterectomy (CEA) and carotid artery stenting (CAS) performed for carotid stenosis have so far not been analyzed at a national level. The aim of this study was to assess small area estimates of procedure rates among German regions, and to identify regional characteristics, which are associated with the regional frequency of procedures. Methods: German diagnosis-related groups (DRG) statistics (2012–2014) were analyzed. Inclusion and exclusion criteria for procedural codes were set according to German quality assurance measures in combination with the diagnosis of carotid stenosis (I65.2). Rates of CEA and CAS were indirectly standardized for sex an age. Results: In total, 88,182 procedures were performed (73,042 CEA; 15,367 CAS). The overall procedure rate varied between 13.2 per 100,000 (Augsburg) and 89.2 per 100,000 (Wilhelmshaven). Spatial analysis revealed that regional distribution was significantly clustered. Conclusion: The rates of CEA, and especially of CAS showed high regional variation. The spatial distribution was significantly clustered. In addition to the regional prevalence of diabetes mellitus, smoking and obesity, socioeconomic factors, such as income and debts were correlated with the overall frequency of CEA and CAS. No significant association was found between indicators of health infrastructure (e.g. density of hospital beds, vascular surgeons and angiologists) and the overall procedure rate.